Technical Papers at the 2024 Annual Meeting

*Technical papers are subject to change.

Tuning elongation in hybrid epoxy membranes: a formulation approach
Presented by: Stéphanie Vanslambrouck, EMCO
Epoxy membranes emerge as a promising candidate for a myriad of applications, such as coatings, insulation components, medical devices or packaging. These robust materials are characterized by their exceptional mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and thermal stability. A critical attribute that underscores the versatility of epoxy membranes is their elongation capability. This crucial ability to withstand substantial deformation without breaking is especially paramount in applications where flexibility and durability are requisites. This paper will delve into the pivotal role of elongation in the performance of epoxy membranes. To further investigate this, the study will introduce modifications to the formulation by incorporating a nonyl phenol- and MEKO-free extender and/or plasticizers. This study will provide a comparative analysis of the product effects on the elongation properties of the membranes. Moreover, a detailed comparison will be made between phthalate and phthalate-free plasticizers, offering insights into their respective impacts on the performance and characteristics of the epoxy membranes. The findings from this research could potentially guide the development of more efficient and effective epoxy membrane applications.

Graphene Enhanced Resin Systems
Presented by: Terrance Barkan, The Graphene Council
Extremely small amounts of graphene have been tested and proven to improve the mechanical performance of thermoset resin systems. This session will review the results of an independent testing of 19 forms and types of graphene in a standard two-part epoxy system, as well as a discussion of commercial application of graphene in composites. 

End Of Life Challenges in Thermosets: Current Status
Presented by: Jeff Gotro, InnoCentrix
Thermosetting polymers are widely used due to their high thermal stability, good mechanical properties, and ease of processing.  The fully cured crosslinked network provides both outstanding thermal stability and poses challenges with regards to end-of-life.  Unlike thermoplastics, cured thermoset resins and composites are not easily recycled and subsequently re-used (such as remelting a recycled PET water bottle).  There are many emerging approaches to chemically recycling thermoset resins.  This paper will present an overview of the current approaches to address the end-of-life considerations in thermoset materials.  One promising approach is to incorporate dynamic covalent bonds into the thermoset backbone.  Covalent adaptive networks are commonly called vitrimers (term coined by Leibler in 2011). Another approach is to use a cleavable linkage in the hardener used in epoxy chemistry called Recyclamine® (Aditya Birla).   Recyclamine® Technology is a platform chemistry with multiple unique amine curing agents containing specifically engineered cleavage points at cross-linking sites, which, under pre-defined conditions, convert thermosetting epoxies into thermoplastics enabling recycling. The paper will cover the history, current approaches and future work addressing end-of-life considerations in various types of thermosetting systems.

Study of CNSL-based Polyurethane technology for EV adhesives and Pottings
Presented by: Yun Mi Kim, Cardolite Corporation
Cashew nutshell Liquid (CNSL) is a non-food chain bio-based feedstock found in the honeycomb structure of the cashew (Anacardium Occidentale) nutshell. Versatile chemistries from CNSL enable the design of high bio-content hydroxyl functional chemicals including CNSL polyols, diols, and monols for Polyurethane (PU) technology. 
In this paper, CNSL-based hydroxyl functional molecules were evaluated to determine key properties needed for electric vehicles (EV) battery packages. CNSL monols were applied as a diluent to lower viscosity and extend pot life while the diols and polyols were utilized to balance strengths and flexibility required in EV battery assembly adhesives. Aging properties such as hydrolytic stability, thermal and chemical resistance were outstanding when CNSL-based polyols and diols were incorporated in 2K or 1K PU systems. CNSL-based polyols have demonstrated satisfying dielectric properties and fire resistance for EV battery applications.

Epoxy Dental Crowns

Presented by: Roger Tietze, PART Consulting
A dental crown is an artificial cap that is shaped to a tooth that is decayed, worn down, broken, or somehow weakened, and is meant to support the tooth. The crown is also used to support and cover dental implants and root canal treatments on the tooth. Crowns are made of traditional materials such as metal and porcelain. Today crowns and other dental implants can be made from a variety of plastic materials. We will be speaking about the development of epoxy dental crowns and the formulation challenges for epoxy resin system.

SYLVASOLV™, a 100% Biobased Plasticizer for more sustainable Structural Adhesives
Presented by: Ömürden Çekerek, Kraton Chemical
There is an increasing trend to make epoxy based structural adhesives more sustainable to support carbon footprint reduction efforts. In line with this trend, we present a pioneering product that can help our customers to achieve their targets: SYLVASOLV™, a 100% biobased hydrocarbon oil engineered as a non-reactive plasticizer for epoxy based two-component reactive structural adhesives. This innovation offers a sustainable alternative to the traditional plasticizers such as di-benzoates and polyester adipates, and help mitigate climate change and reduce environmental impacts.
SYLVASOLV is derived from crude tall oil (CTO), a by-product of pulp and paper manufacturing process, making it a sustainable alternative to petroleum-derived plasticizers. Using SYLVASOLV can lower the Cradle-to-Gate Fossil Global Warming Potential (GWP) of adhesives. Dependent on what happens at 'End-of-life', the biogenic carbon content of SYLVASOLV can help adhesive formulators to achieve even greater product carbon footprint reductions, for a greener and more sustainable adhesive industry. 
This presentation will delve into the development, properties, and performance benefits of SYLVASOLV. We invite the adhesive community to explore this innovative and sustainable solution, foster collaboration and work together to accelerate the transition towards more sustainable industrial practices.

2023-2028 US Market Analysis
Presented by: Edye Fox Abrams, ChemQuest
Understanding the current state of the paint and coatings market is challenging due to many recent market fluctuations. This presentation will provide an overview of the market today, based on the recently published US Market Analysis 2024-2028 written by ChemQuest on behalf of the American Coating Association. Future trends, from a megatrend as well as industry specific viewpoint, will also be shared to facilitate R&D considerations within your organization.

Protective Coatings
Presented by: James Horne, Eastman

Protective coatings need to be resilient and tough. These coatings encounter many elements of weathering: photo-irradiation, moisture changes, wind, rain, chemicals, pollution, and whatever else life decides to throw at us. There is an immense global pressure for companies to keep assets in service longer with a focus on increased performance, all surrounded by ever changing environmental and sustainability regulations. To address these challenges, formulators are on the hunt to find a resin that is not a material of concern and can provide maximum gloss retention that meets or exceeds 10,000 hours of accelerated weathering testing. Eastman has developed a novel polyester-based resin containing certified recycled content for liquid applications that can deliver performance comparable to best-in-class materials under accelerated weathering testing. This paper will showcase the exceptional weatherability of this unique resin and compare the performance to incumbent resins such as commercially available acrylics, polyesters and fluoroethylene vinyl ether (FEVE).

Presented by: Sven Wiemer, Schill + Seilacher
Sustainability has now found its way into many areas of everyday life, including technical products and processes. The talk takes a closer look at two R&D projects at Sof the "Reactive Polymers and Flame Retardants" division of Germany based Schill + Seilacher "STRUKTOL" GmbH, Hamburg, that are linked to this topic.

The use of monofunctional polyetheramines in waterborne epoxy resins
Presented by: Steven Buvens, Huntsman Corporation
Many epoxy-based coatings are still formulated with solvents. As environmental regulations become more stringent, the need to switch to more ecological and safer systems is still growing. Efforts are put in place to replace solvent-borne coatings with alternatives like for instance water-borne solutions. 

Since most commercial non-ionic surfactants - used to emulsify the epoxy resin in water – are based on long blocks of polyethyleneoxide as the hydrophile, it is logical to consider the use of reactive hydrophilic polyetheramines as modifiers of hydrophobic epoxy resins as well.

The self-emulsification of epoxy resins can be done by adducting a part of the epoxy resin with such polyether amines. The resulting epoxy-amine adduct serves as an internal reactive surfactant for the remaining epoxy resins. During coating application, this reactive surfactant cures with the waterborne hardener and stays in the film when the coating is exposed to rain or humidity (no surfactant leaching).

The use of polyetheramines in the making of an epoxy emulsion or dispersion on lab scale will be demonstrated starting from a standard liquid or solid epoxy resin. The resulting self-made emulsion / dispersion will be compared with commercial binder / water borne hardener combinations in a clear and white epoxy coatings, and results are discussed. 

Improving Epoxy System Performance through the incorporation of Epoxy Terminated Butadiene-Acrylonitrile Copolymer (ETBN)
Presented by: Mitch Buchanan, Huntsman Corporation

Formulating high-performance thermoset systems with epoxy resins has characteristic advantages over other common chemistries, but due to the nature of epoxy resins there are fundamental limitations of these systems.  These shortfalls can be reduced or overcome during formulating through careful selection of the correct base epoxy system and the inclusion of various additives or reactants to improve performance.

One shortcoming of epoxy systems is the relative brittleness of the cured matrix, especially when formulating highly crosslinked coatings, adhesives or composites optimized for chemical and thermal resistance.  In this presentation we will overview two common methodologies for reducing and overcoming this increase in brittleness, through increasing flexibility or toughening the system.  I will review common methodologies of toughening epoxy systems and share an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of each in relation to their impact on the physical and mechanical properties of the epoxy system.  

In conclusion, a technology that overcomes some limitations of toughening with traditional carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile polymers (CTBN)s will be reviewed.  This epoxy terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (ETBN) technology allows for improved properties and easier incorporation into standard epoxy systems.